The questionnaire survey is an essential step in market research. It allows you to survey potential customers as part of a business creation or takeover project.
To conduct a survey, a sample of people to be interviewed must be selected and a survey questionnaire drawn up. Then, we will have to carry out the survey, group the results and analyze them.
1. Build the Survey Questionnaire
The first step is to build the questionnaire. It will serve as a support to conduct the survey and collect responses.
First, the questionnaire should present the author of the questionnaire, the project and the goal of the survey. In general, show the time to complete the survey questionnaire.
Then, you must or show all the survey questions. Do not place these in any order. We must start with the general questions used in particular to filter the respondents. Then we must find the important questions of the survey. The order of the questions is important. There must be a logical and inciting sequence.
The questions should be short and simple to understand. The survey questionnaire should not contain too many questions. Otherwise, many respondents will not complete the survey and/or will not answer correctly. There are several types of questions:
- Closed one-choice questions: where the interviewee has only one answer to give, such as yes / no questions or filtering questions (age, city, gender, etc.),
- Closed multiple-choice questions: Where the interviewee must select an answer from those proposed.
- Open questions: This allows you to collect free answers, which can be enriching.
Finally, it is not uncommon to ask the interviewee to leave their contact details so that they can contact them when the project is launched.
2. Select The Sample Of Persons In Question
After establishing a survey questionnaire, the next step is to determine the sample of people to be interviewed.
The selection of the sample depends on the characteristics of the project and the aim of the survey. It can be a large sample or, on the contrary, a very targeted sample of people.
The number of people to be interviewed must be determined from the number of responses one wishes to get. By estimating the response rate to the questionnaire one can determine the number of people to be interviewed.
This step is very important for the relevance of market research. The more the sample is targeted, the more the answers to the questionnaire will be interesting to use.
3. Make The Questionnaire Survey
When the sample of people to be interviewed is defined and the questionnaires are ready. It is time to carry out the survey.
Several techniques are possible for this.
- It is first of all possible to investigate the field, by direct contact with the interviewees. This process is rather used within the framework of a qualitative market study. It is time-consuming or expensive when the survey is contracted out. Then the survey can be done by phone rather than in the field. This process takes time but it still allows direct contact with the interviewees.
- It is also possible to conduct an online survey, by distributing the survey questionnaire to a community of Internet users. For example, distribute the survey on social networks, in interest groups, on websites and blogs or in newsletters. The return rate is less important here than with the other methods. It is more difficult to judge the seriousness of the responses collected.
- Finally, it is possible to work with a service provider who offers a survey platform for interviewing panelists. With this process, we can precisely define the sample questioned using many criteria, have access to a large panel to be questioned, conduct the study very quickly and get a report with the results. In return, the use of this method at a cost
4. Gather And Analyze The Results Of The Survey
After completing the survey, the results must be grouped and analyzed. For obvious reasons, it is preferable to study the results of the survey on a computer, using a table or a specific application.
Depending on the answers obtained. It may be necessary to adapt the offer to the needs of customers who were identified during the survey. Thus, by conducting a survey, the entrepreneur will be able to launch a relevant product or service offer. And thus increase his chances of success.